Hostelries

Although there were public houses and alehouses in Weston Turville in the 16th to 18th centuries, only one public house, "The Plow" is shown on the 1799 Enclosure Map. However it is known that the "Chequers" was also operating as an inn at that time. In 1824 a law was passed to restrict the proliferation of "home brewing" and making it illegal to make and sell ale within 100 yards of a licensed public house. 

The Beerhouse Act of 1830 had the intention of increasing competition, lowering beer prices and to encourage people to chose beer over strong spirits. Any ratepayer could apply for a license, which cost two guineas. The number of breweries in the Aylesbury area also saw rapid growth, from 7 in 1830 rising to 10 in 1850 before consolidation kicked in and small breweries (Such as Walton Brewery, on Walton Street) were absorbed into larger companies.[5]  The New Bell Brewery in Aston Clinton survived until 1915 when it was acquired by Benskins Ltd. 

In Weston Turville, there was a new brewhouse built (probably at the Chandos Arms) in 1840 by Richard Pursell, for a house occupied by D. Paine or (D. Payne).[14,15

On the 8th July 1840, there were break-ins at Mrs. Edmonds, the beer retailer and at The Chequer's Public House. [19]

1853, William Burt and John Astell's applications for licenses were refused. It is possible that John Axtell's application was for a spirit license, as he appears as a beer retailer in that year's directory.

1854's Kelly's Directory shows Josiah Bates (Crown), William Burt (Elephant), Richard Ingram (Vine or Magpie) and Joseph Monk (?) as beer retailers. Also Barrington Fitkin "Chequers Inn", Francis Hardy "Golden Perch", William Kirtland "The Plough" and Richard Purssell "Chandos Arms". (Items in italics are deduced from other records)

In 1858, Rev Arthur Isham was incensed by news that there was to be another application for a spirit license for one of the beershops in the parish that he sent two letters to the Magistrates of the Petty Sessions in Aylesbury. These seem to have been ignored so he sent copies of the letters to the editor of the Bucks Herald for publication in August 1859. He notes that there are already three public-houses in the village and another in the parish on the reservoir. Additionally there were six beershops in the parish and 50 yards beyond the parish boundary two public-houses that were nearer Weston Turville than Wendover. The application that had so upset Rev. Isham was probably from Mr. William Burtt of the Elephant and was granted, it is worth noting that there was no objection to the issuing of the license at the Petty Session on 28 Aug 1858 when it was granted, not even Rev. Isham.

1859 Weston Turville had 5 Public-Houses and 5 Beer-Houses.  John Axtell's application for a spirit license for The Black Horse was again refused, as there was already a public house 100 yards away.

Thus by 1860 Weston Turville was reported to have at least eleven public houses or alehouses. The alehouse was merely a front room of a cottage and the licensee often pursuing another trade during the day.

Examples of alehouses (beerhouses) in Weston Turville were: the Black Horse, the Five Bells, the Old Crown and The Vine. The Plough (Plow), the Elephant & the Chandos Arms were classed as public houses and are shown as such in the censuses of the 1800s. The Chequers, even then, was classed as an inn and probably took in paying guests. The Magpie (Harrow Inn) was licensed for beer to be consumed off-premises (equivalent to our off-license premises today). It would also appear that there have been several "beer retailers" that operated from either their homes or shops. However it is difficult to identify where these were located in the parish.

In the early 1900s, "The Aylesbury and District Free Church Council and the Aylesbury United Temperance Committee protested most applications for licences.

Most of the public houses were leased and in 1872 the Chandos Arms, the Elephant and The Vine were owned by the Aylesbury brewers of Messrs. Wroughton and Co. The Five Bells was owned by Messrs. James and Horwood, solicitors of Aylesbury. Alehouses had closed down by 1918 due to the introduction of licensing hours to restrict workers' drinking time.[1] 

By the late 19C there were approximately one licensed premises for every 100 of the population of the parish.

These establishments were at the heart of the community and many of the Benefits clubs were centred there, these helped out in times of hardship held annual feasts etc.

1862 (Bucks Herald 30 Aug) reports Weston Turville having 5 Spirit licenses and 5 for Beer there are no licenses for the sale of beer to be consumed off the premises. No drink related convictions.

1864's Kelly's Directory shows Josiah Bates (Crown), Joseph Bunce (Five Bells) William Ingram (Vine or Magpie) and Joseph Wallace (?) as beer retailers. Also William Burtt "Elephant", Barrington Fitkin "Chequers Inn", William Kirtland "The Plough". (Items in italics are deduced from other records). Joseph Wallace is a Wheelwright aged 22 in the 1861 census, a lodger with John Axtell, Publican, in Brook End on the 1861 census.

1867 - "FOUR CLUB FEASTS were held here on the 10th and 11th inst. The Waddesdon band was in attendance at the Plough Inn, where about ninety members sat down to dinner; at the Chandos Arms, about 100; at the Elephant, about forty; and at Bates's, about thirty. Most of the members attended divine service at the Parish Church, which was conducted by the rector, the Rev. A. Isham, who delivered an impressive sermon applicable to the occasion. Cricket and other amusements were afterwards indulged in, and all passed off very creditably".[2]  Bates's would have been the Crown.

1868 Drunk and riotous (2 Jul)

John Atkins was charged with being drunk and riotous, at Weston Turville, on the 2nd inst.

Police-constable Henry Andrews said he met the defendant about two o'clock on the morning of the 2nd of June, with his coat off and wanting to fight. He went up to defendant, when he struck him in the face. He was going to strike witness again, when he took him into custody. His friends came up and took him away by force.

The defendant, who did not appear, was ordered to be committed for seven days, without the option of a fine. He afterwards came into Court, and in consideration of his having borne a good character previously, he having been in the army, and being in possession of two good conduct medals, the Bench let him off by paying fine of 20s., including costs. Mr. Tindal to Mr. Clarke-There is an instance of a sentence being altered, Mr. Clark![17]

In 1869, John Jones who lived in West End applied for permission for a fresh beerhouse in Weston Turville, but the Bench thought that another was not required there and refused the application.[18]

In October 1877, there was a temporary transfer of a license, reported in the Bucks Herald, without naming the establishment or license holder. Joseph Bates, of The Crown Inn died in 1876?

1895 DRUNKENNESS AT WESTON TURVILLE

William Thorne, labourer, of Aston Clinton, pleaded guilty to being drunk and disorderly on Aug. 26th, at Weston Turville-P.C. Spall stated the facts. George Thorne, sawyer and carpenter, father of the prisoner, said his son had insulted him, and he wished him to be bound over to keep the peace. Defendant was fined 15s., with the alternative of seven days imprisonment.-He promised not to annoy his father any more.[16]

1896 (reported 28 Aug 1897) there were no drink related convictions.

1897 (reported 27 Aug 1898) there was one drunk conviction.

In  1898, there were no convictions for being drunk.

In  1899, there were no drinking related convictions.

In  1901, there was a population of 791 and ? licensed properties(Pop at 1901 census 720) (one for every ? in the parish) and no convictions for being drunk.

1902 (Reported 14 Feb 1903), there were ? Licensed Houses (Pop at 1901 census 720) One for every ? population - No Drink related convictions.

1903 (Reported 13 Feb 1904), there were ? Licensed Houses (Pop at 1901 census 720) One for every ? population - No Drink related convictions.

In  1908, (one for every 102.85 in the parish) There were objections to renewing the licence for the The Vine.

In  1909, (one for every 102.85 in the parish) there was one convictions for being drunk.

In  1910, there was a population of 720 and 7 licensed properties (one for every 103 in the parish) and no convictions for being drunk. The Plough (P.H.) however was not considered well conducted.

In  1911, there was a population of 720 and 7 licensed properties (one for every 103 in the parish) and two convictions for being either drunk or drunk and disorderly. 

In  1912, there was a population of 737 and 7 licensed properties (one for every 105 in the parish) and no convictions for being drunk.

In  1913, there was a population of 737 and 6 (The Vine P.H. had voluntarily closed under the Licensing Consolidation Act, 1910) licensed properties (one for every 123 in the parish) and one convictions for being Drunk and Disorderly. The Chairman of the Aylesbury Licensing Committee also commented that there were no convictions of any license holder during the year.

The Annual Licensing Report for Buckinghamshire in January 1914 showed the Compensation fund with funds of £1,100 13s 4d. It had been decided in the previous May that ten licensed houses should be closed in 1914. The Bucks Brewers Association proposed the voluntary closure of ten properties without compensation on the understanding that closure of more houses with compensation be deferred. That list included the fully licensed Crown in Weston Turville.[10]

In the year to 1915, The Crown Beerhouse "on" was closed under the Licensing Consolidation act of 1910 (voluntary scheme) and no drinking related convictions.

In  1916, In the Aylesbury District, there were no convictions under the Licensing (Consolidation)  Act, there were 6 under the "Early Closing Order" of 17th Sept 1914 and the Army order made under the Defence of the Realm Regulations. There was a population of 737 and 6 licensed properties (one for every 147 in the parish) and no convictions for being drunk. (Though the quoted population is from the census, it was noted that population had actually increased, though crime relating to drunkenness had decreased and more than half of those convicted were "strangers".

In  1917, there was a population of 737 and 5 licensed properties (one for every 147 in the parish) and no convictions for being drunk.

In  1918, there was a population of 737 and 5 licensed properties (one for every 147 in the parish) and no convictions for being drunk.  "The Black Horse" license surrendered (voluntarily) - reason not clear.

The Bucks Licensing Committee accepted a proposal that there be no compensation levy in 1918 in exchange for the voluntary closure of 10 licensed houses, which included the Black Horse in Weston Turville.[12] 

In 1918 & 19 opening hours were extended in Weston Turville by one hour during British Summer Time to 10p.m. (Sun Time 9p.m.) to allow allotment holders and agricultural workers to get a little refreshment after they had finished their days work on the land.

1922 (Reported 10 Feb 1923), (The figures from 1921 census were not available) and 4 licensed properties - No drink related convictions.

1924 Christmas Day (From Bucks Herald) 

CHRISTMAS DAY SCENE. Gilbert Sidney Sharp, fruit salesman, 13. Cambridge-place, Aylesbury, was summoned for being drunk in charge of a horse and cart at World's End, Weston Turville, on Christmas Day. Defendant pleaded not guilty. Harry Betteress, bootmaker, 13. Cambridge-place Aylesbury, was charged with being drunk and disorderly at World's End. Weston Turville, on the same day. He pleaded not guilty. P.S. Blane stated that at 6.30 p.m. on Dec. 25th he was with P.C. Dickens in High-street, Wendover, when he saw both defendants. Sharp was leading a pony and cart, and the reins were dragging on the ground. Betteress was staggering behind. Both were the worse for drink, and Sharp, when questioned by witness, said he had to go to Aylesbury. Betteress then came up, and said, "You leave my uncle alone; I am capable of looking after him." Sharp said he was a brute to drive a pony. Acting on witness's advice, both defendants got into the cart and they drove off, zig-zagging about the road. They then appeared to go off allright, but witness followed them and found them in a publichouse, drinking. He got them out, and got a taxi to send them home, but they flatly refused to go. They struggled violently with witness, whose thumb was put out. Sharp denied being drunk, saying he was suffering from shell-shock. Butteress: I am a teetotaller 51 weeks out of the 52 and a non-smoker, and I deny being drunk. - The Chairman: I advise you to add the other week to the year-Defendants were each fined 10s.

In the year to Feb 1925, there was a population of 849 and 4 licensed properties (one for every 212 in the parish) and two convictions for being drunk and disorderly. 

1925 DRUNK. (From Bucks Herald 15 Aug 1925)

Ernest Chas. Pratt, labourer, 7. Staines-road, Green Hill, Harrow, was summoned for being drunk and incapable at Weston Turville on Monday, August 3rd. He pleaded guilty.-P.S.Blane said at 10.45 p.m. on August the date mentioned he saw defendant lying in the road at World's End, helplessly drunk. He was very civil and gave no trouble. Supt. Kent said defendant held good character and in view of this he was ordered to pay costs only.

1925 There were two convictions for drunkenness with aggravation in the year (Reported 13 Feb 1926) (we are not sure which events were included in this statistic, date of charge or of conviction?).

1926 A ships chief steward, Charles Edward White was staying in Aylesbury, describing himself as a representative of the "Daily Mail". Armed with a small attaché case containing two notebooks, one containing a list of public houses in the area, and other props such as a stick of sealing wax, some full and empty sample bottles he visited Isabella Warner at The Chandos Arms and Frank Langstone at The Chequers. He introduced himself as a Customs and Excise Officer who was investigating complaints from officers at R.A.F. camp in Halton. He showed a whisky sample that he said looked rather weak in colour. While he looked over their stock-books and permits, he offered to change it as it could mean a £50 or £60 fine and license revocation. Charles White was found guilty and sentenced to prison for three months on each charge, sentences to run concurrently.[10

1926 (Reported 12 Feb 1927), there was a population of 849 (From 1921 census) and 4 licensed properties (one for every 212.25 in the parish) - No drink related convictions.

1927 (Reported Feb 1928), there was a population of 849 (From 1921 census) and 4 licensed properties (one for every 212.25 in the parish) - Drink related convictions not reported.

1928 (Reported 08 Feb 1929), there was a population of 849 (From 1921 census) and 4 licensed properties (one for every 212.25 in the parish) - Drink related convictions not reported.

1933 (Reported 03 Feb 1934), there were 4 Licensed Houses (Pop at 1931 census 1,040) One for every 260 population, against an average across the Aylesbury licensing district of 190.[11]

1836 (Reported 12 Feb 1937), there were 4 Licensed Houses (Pop at 1931 census 1,040) One for every 260 population - No Drink related convictions.

1938 Aylesbury Brewing Co. proposed to remove the full license of "The Fox Inn" at Scrubwood and apply it to new premises also be known as "The Fox" which they planned to erect on the Wendover Road, Weston Turville just beyond the garage at the entrance to Station Road. Objections were made by protesters that were not even local and not actually entitled to voice an objection. There was actually little opposition and the local Temperance bodies and Band of Hope Union seem to have double counted votes. The Weston Turville parish had a population of 1,040 at the 1931 census and the population was growing. In the parish, there were three fully licensed houses and one beerhouse which equated to 260 persons to each house, substantially lower than neighbouring parishes. Never-the-less, the application was refused.[7] 

There was one conviction for drunkenness with aggravation in the year to Feb 1938 (we are not sure which events were included in this statistic).


These are evolving charts showing the type of and number of licenses held in the parish of Weston Turville over time.

It includes verifiable dates (recent) and several guessed dates (earlier).

1 - Old Crown 

West End (Alehouse)

This image was generated using KREA AI from a C1905 postcard.   

The Old Crown is a 17th Century farm house which was extended in 19th Century. It would have been on the main thoroughfare to Aylesbury. The Old Crown in West End became a pub in 1832 run by Joshua (Josiah) Bates who was a cattle dealer. It is possibly on the site of the old Rose & Crown (1753-1779) with Robert Stopp the landlord in 1753. Previous to that it may have been an alehouse (1686). The Crown was a customer of Walton Brewery which was later acquired by ABC Ltd. in 1895. It closed as a pub in 1915 and is now a private residence. Read more....

2 - The Chandos Arms

1 Main Street (Public House)

This image was generated using KREA AI from a selection of early 20th century postcards.   

The Chandos Arms has been a Public House since 1842 when it was run by Richard Pursell, who was a baker. The Chandos Arms was already a hostelry of some form before then. The beer was supplied by Ivinghoe Brewery (owned by Roberts & Wilson), which was acquired by Benskins in 1927. The Chandos was a venue used for political rallies, inquests and auctions. It was also the site of one of the many saddlers in WT in the early 1900s. The fox hounds and the Old Berkeley Beagles would meet at the Chandos Arms at regular intervals throughout the year in the 1950s and 1960s. Read more....

3 - The Five Bells

40 Main Street (Public House)

This image was generated using KREA AI from two early 20th century postcards and a modern photograph.   

The Five Bells was licensed inn in 1865 with Joseph Bunce, a grocer, as the licensee. In 1941 a license was granted for "on" or "off" consumption of wine on condition that hot and cold water was provided in a wash basin in the men's lavatory. The Five Bells was often a venue for inquests in C19. It has changed over the years from an alehouse to a public house, restaurant and Inn. Read more....

4 - Magpie (or Harrow)

48 Main Street (Ale House)

This image was generated by KREA AI from a C1919 postcards. 

The house was built in 1760. In the book of the village by Hamish Eaton it says that it was called the Magpie alehouse in the 1800s and was probably unlicensed. Looking at the 1824 Business Directory and the 1851 Census it would appear at that time that an alehouse called the Harrow Inn was situated in Main Street. It is possible that it has had two different names, The Magpie and the Harrow Inn in the 19th century. The premises became a shop and was latterly until 1950s a garage with petrol pumps etc. It is now a private residence. Read more....

5 - The Plough/Plow

5 Brook End (Public House)

This image was generated by KREA AI from a 1923 pencil sketch of the original Plough by A.G.Rees who was the proprietor  1922-23.

The Plough (5 Brook End) was an alehouse called the Plow from 1685 to 1753. It was the only public house in Weston Turville that is shown on the enclosure map of 1799. [1] The old building, formerly thatched, was destroyed by fire and rebuilt in 1909.

It included a Blacksmith's shop and paddock. By 1893, the name changed and it was being let by Walton Brewery, Aylesbury. 

For at least 35 years, the tenants were the Kirtland family, equally known for being Blacksmiths and Farriers as publicans and victuallers.

It was sold to the Aylesbury Brewery Company in 1895 by Parrott, Walter & Co. of Aylesbury, who owned Walton Brewery. 

The Plough was regularly used as a site for auctions and it's Friendly Society Feast days were well attended into the 20th Century.

The Plough closed as a hostelry in October 1994 and after a period of decay revived as a private dwelling in 2009. Read more.... 

6 - The Black Horse

The Brills, Brook End (Public House)

This image was generated by KREA AI from a poor quality photograph of a C1900 watercolour. 

The Brills dates back to the 15th C. The Brills was owned by John Brown from 1660 and it was he who held the Quaker Meetings from 1669 to 1714. In 1714 George Brill was in dispute over non-payment of tythes to the steeple house (the church). He supported the Quakers who had a meeting house behind the Brills. The Quakers obtained a small plot of land to the north of the road as burial ground. Hence Quakers Mead across the road. The Brills was owned by the Marquis of Buckingham as part of the Enclosure of WT in 1798. In 1837 the west end of the Brills became the Black Horse and was run by the Axtell family until 1918. Read more.... 

7 - Sot's Hole?

Willow End (Alehouse)

This image was generated by KREA AI from a photograph taken at around the time of the 1970s? renovation of what is thought to have been Sot's Hole

The location of an unlicensed alehouse called Sot’s Hole is unknown but it is thought to be in Willow End, off Bates lane. It is here that a beer could be obtained around the 1850s. However it was probably not licensed premises. Today there is a renovated house in Willow End, which dates from an earlier date, that would have been in the vicinity where Sot’s Hole probably stood. In 1878 Ordnance Survey map of Weston Turville a number of residences are shown in this vicinity. Apart from the one shown in the picture which have subsequently been destroyed.. Read more.... 

8 - Chequers Inn

35 Church Lane (Public House)

This image was generated by KREA AI from a C1895 postcard. 

This is probably the site of the oldest alehouse in WT. In 1753 it was called the “Ninepin and Bowl” and changed its name to the “Chequers” in 1768. In 1572 John Nashe is recorded as a beer brewer and in 1577 the inn was run by William Truelove. It was classed as an inn at that time. The current building is not the original having been rebuilt by Thomas Pursell (landlord from 1783 to 1799) on the site of an old brewhouse and barn next door. It was sold to the Aylesbury Brewery Company in 1895. As with many of the alehouses there was a shop in the 1930s...Read more.... 

9 - The Vine

Church Walk (Ale House)

This image was generated by KREA AI from a C1895 postcard. 

"The Vine" was a smallholding with orchards and poultry. 

It was one of the first properties in Weston Turville to take advantage of the 1830 Beer Act, opened in 1832.  It remained as an beerhouse until 1873 when it became a public house when the spirit license of the Elephant and Castle transferred to The Vine. In 1913 it was voluntarily closed under the licensing consolidation Act of 1901. After the great war "The Vine" became transformed into a private residence known as  "Burnside". For many years, it was owned by Alexander Jamieson, an accomplished artist who has been exhibited at the Royal Academy. His studio was at the far end of the building. Read more.... 

10 - The Elephant Inn

School Lane (Alehouse)

This image was generated using KREA AI from a combination of 19C and modern photographs.   

The Beeches is a Grade II listed building and was built in 1827 with late Victorian wings added in 1880. In some records, it was called or known by the sign of "The Elephant and Castle". Though William Burt's application for a license was refused in 1853, he is described as a beer seller in 1854. The Elephant Benefit Society was founded in 1855. There were no objections to William's application for a spirit license in 1858. In 1873 it's spirit license was transferred to "The Vine". It has since been a Poultry Farm and Guest House. The house has also been owned by Sir A. de Rothschild, the Bunce family and Harvey Wakefield (church warden and benefactor of the church) and is now a private residence.  Read more....

11 - The Golden Perch

Halton Lane (Fishing Clubhouse)

This image is part of a promotional poster from about 1853.   

The Golden Perch, originally the Reservoir's Fishing Clubhouse. Frances Hardy is granted a license as a Public-House in 1851, as long as he doesn't rent out boats or punts on Sundays until the evening. Golden Perch seems to be very successful, hosting major events. Francis Hardy is described as the perfect host "and if they want company and a social pipe, Mr. Hardy, the proprietor; is the man for them." Francis Hardy dies and the "Golden Perch" was destroyed by fire in 1862. Read more....

12 - Bunce's Stores

Crossroads (Off Premises)

This image was generated using KREA AI from a C1910 postcard.   

Bunce's Stores at the Crossroads was a grocery store, but now a private home. in 1837 it acquired an "off premises" licence.  Read more.... 

13 - Malthouse Row

Bates Lane

This image was generated using Midjourney from a text description.   

In the 1878 Ordnance Survey map of Weston Turville there is an area called Malthouse Row. Malthouse Row was situated at the end of Bates Lane to the rear of the old Bates Bakehouse and Sannie Cottage where Brookside and Bakers Walk are today.  Read more.... 

14 - The Fox

Wendover Road

This image was imagined using Google Streetview, DAL-E and KREA AI. 

Aylesbury Brewing Co. proposed to remove the full license of "The Fox Inn" at Scrubwood and apply it to new premises also be known as "The Fox" which they planned to erect on the Wendover Road, Weston Turville just beyond the garage at the entrance to Station Road. The population was 1,040 at the 1931 census and the population was growing. There were three full licenses and one beerhouse which made260 persons to each house, lower than neighbouring parishes. Never-the-less, the application was refused.  Read more.... 

15 - Edmonds Store

Church End

This image was generated using KREA AI based upon a C1900 postcard. 

John Edmonds "storekeeper" and his wife Mary "beer retailer" lived in Church End. While the precise location of their store remains unknown, it is documented that their business was operational for over three decades in the 19th century. There was a break in the store's operation when John and Mary became landlord and landlady of the New Inn at Buckland Wharf. Read more.... 

Breweries

The financially troubled Lion Brewery in Princes Risborough had 80 freehold, copyhold and leasehold properties spread over a wide area, one of which was probably The Vine. There was a loss of rental approaching £300 per annum. They were also the leaseholder of the Rothschild's Arms, Aston Clinton. It was purchased by Welch Ale Brewery in March 1900.[9] The pubs were then sold to the Aylesbury Brewery Co. Ltd. in 1920.

Dells Brewery in Aylesbury had at least one property in Weston Turville, "The Plow/Plough" from 1796 it was later a Griffin Brewery (Fuller, Smith & Turner) Tied House.[6]

Ivinghoe Brewery - Roberts & Wilson supplied "Chandos Arms" which was transferred to Benskins in 1927.[6]

Brew House owned by Lucas & Lovett in Brewhouse Lane, Rowsham supplied Chequers. Sold to William Kempton Gurney in 1875. Brewing ceased in 1939.[6]

Walton Brewery absorbed into Aylesbury Brewery Company A.B.C. supplied "The Plough", "Chequers", "(Old) Crown", "Vine" (from 1904) and "Black Horse". Acquired by Allied Breweries in 1973.[6] 

References


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